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10 марта 2015
Фото со страницы ФАНО в социальной сети

Фото со страницы ФАНО в социальной сети

Реформа Российской академии наук преодолела очень важный — и психологически, и административно — этап. Федеральное агентство научных организаций (ФАНО) приступило к структурным преобразованиям подведомственной сети научных организаций. На начало года таковых было около 1200. И вот в налоговой службе зарегистрирован устав первого Федерального исследовательского центра (ФИЦ), созданного на базе Института проблем информатики РАН. В структуру ФИЦ вошли также Институт системного анализа РАН и Вычислительный центр им. А.А. Дородницына РАН. Естественно, вошли с потерей статуса юридического лица. «Согласно утвержденной ФАНО России и одобренной РАН программе развития, созданный ФИЦ займется фундаментальными и прикладными исследованиями в области математики, математического моделирования, информатики, информационных технологий», — отмечается в официальном пресс-релизе ФАНО.

В связи с этим действительно важным событием можно отметить несколько обстоятельств, сопутствующих ему.

Во-первых, отнюдь не случайно подчеркивается, что программа создания ФИЦ одобрена Российской академией наук. То есть, вроде как, все делается по взаимному согласию ФАНО и РАН. Но сегодня уже очевидно, что реформа академической науки, начавшаяся в июне 2013 года, не имела четко обозначенных рациональных целей. А одним из главных движущих мотивов этой реформы стал фактор личных амбиций чиновников от науки. Сегодня эти амбиции более или менее удовлетворены. Что в итоге? Как отметил на днях нобелевский лауреат, академик Жорес Алферов, ФАНО, созданное для управления финансовыми делами РАН, «не имеет специалистов, с которыми можно что-то обсуждать, которые что-то понимают, произошел развал системы РАН». Действительно, за полтора года никто не смог предъявить обществу никаких результатов — в чем проявились улучшения системы управления наукой. Их просто нет. Но чиновничья амбиция за это время трансформировалась в госполитику в сфере науки с забытой целью. Сами себя загнали в тупик.

Второе обстоятельство, которое хотелось бы отметить. По мнению функционеров ФАНО, создание сети «мощных центров обеспечит стране конкурентное преимущество в стратегически важных для нее отраслях экономики». Вот и помощник президента РФ Андрей Фурсенко призывает: «Нужно идти к созданию научных агломераций в академических институтах». Однако никто еще не доказал и не показал, что «агломерация» исследовательских организаций в науке сама по себе автоматически повышает эффективность научных исследований. Наоборот, весь опыт свидетельствует об обратном: например, не случайно для реализации атомного проекта в СССР были созданы два ядерных центра. То же самое — в космической программе, в авиастроении.

Наконец, третий момент. Директор Института проблем информатики РАН, на базе которого создан Федеральный исследовательский центр, академик Игорь Соколов до января 2015 года был и главным ученым секретарем РАН (как раз с июня 2013 года). Параллельно он и лоббировал создание ФИЦ. Занимался этим настолько активно, что это вызвало недовольство президента РАН Владимира Фортова. Что называется, конфликт интересов. Соколов, очевидно, сделал свой выбор в этом конфликте. Теперь, немного утрируя, можно сказать, что запущен механизм растаскивания РАН на куски.

Не заметно, чтобы, призывая РАН заняться экспертизой научных проектов, инициаторы ее реформы прислушивались к чьему бы то ни было экспертному мнению. Между тем многие эксперты говорят о «научно-технической контрреволюции», которая возникает в условиях слишком большого сближения науки с государством. Это может привести лишь к превращению науки в идеологическую обслугу власти. Государству стоит напомнить старую истину: опираться можно только на то, что сопротивляется.

Источник: Независимая газета

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    1. Create associations and visualizations

    It will be easier to remember new things if you connect the unknown with the already existing knowledge. The essence of the method of associations is to combine the known and the unknown into a single history, to mark new information with familiar markers. So the information received can be easily remembered and quickly reproduced at the right time. With the help of associative parallels, it is easy to learn road signs, passwords and dates, phone numbers and credit cards.

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    2. Learn poetry and read aloud

    The time-tested method is memorizing poems. This is not about mindless cramming, but about understanding the meaning, its conscious perception. Make it a rule to teach one little piece every week. Gradually increase the volume of the material. It will be easier to remember if you break it down into several parts in advance and teach it in quatrains. You can do this anywhere: at lunch, while walking or in transport. Don’t be afraid of a lot of repetitions. Over time, you will notice that it takes less and less time to memorize.

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    3. Try to remember forgotten

    It is not necessary to take the shopping list prepared before going to the store. On the one hand, such a list will help not to miss anything and at the same time not to buy too much. On the other hand, its absence will have a positive effect on the state of memory. Do not buy something this time – by the next trip you will have an incentive to better memorize items from the list and keep them in mind. Forgot someone’s name, phone number, password or recipe ingredients? Try to remember. Take the time and take a few minutes to do this instead of looking for an answer in your smartphone or notebook. This is great for strengthening memory.
    4. Master foreign languages

    You can learn poems and songs not only in your native language. Don’t know a foreign language – start mastering it. It is one of the best ways to activate brain cells and enhance memory capacity. If you memorize a few words every day, then after a couple of months you can feel a noticeable result. Learning a new language develops the ability to structure, analyze and memorize information. In addition, it is a good prevention of age-related diseases. For example, Alzheimer’s disease. The most popular way to memorize foreign vocabulary is cards with words and expressions. This technique is based precisely on visual associations.
    5. Remember the events of the day

    Another way to activate memory is to plunge into the past day and remember all its events. Before going to bed, try to reconstruct snippets of dialogue, images of people, their facial expressions and gestures, every phone call and meals that made up your diet. Try to recreate the sequence of all actions from the moment of awakening. Provide these pictures in as much detail as possible. At the same time, it is important to connect imagination, visual, auditory and olfactory memory.

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